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Fischer thesis explanation
Although the to-and-fro between belligerent politicians and scholars about responsibility dominated debate, other academic and political communities contributed novel perspectives. Germany and, austria-Hungary as key and those who focus on a wider group of actors. The drive to war resulted from increasing anxiety amongst German elites about the deterioration of the domestic and international stability of the Empire. Hans-Ulrich Wehler, Das Deutsche Kaiserreich (Gttingen: Verlages Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht 1973 translated as The German Empire (Providence: Berg 1985). In this respect, the two camps shared a similar, if negative, goal, namely avoiding a return to a dictatorship. This interpretation significantly reduced the interpretive weight placed on the international system. 24 Schroeder claimed that 1914 was a "preventive war" forced on Germany to maintain Austria as a power, which was faced with a crippling British "encirclement policy" aimed at the break-up of that state. Mobilising domestic support for a major war required that the conflict be justified as a defensive reaction to foreign aggression. Taylor argued that by engaging in an arms race and having the general staffs develop elaborate railway timetables for mobilization, the continental powers hoped to develop a deterrent that would lead to other powers seeing the risk of war as too dangerous. In: Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte 64 (2014.
The debate on the origins of World War One - The British Library
For other people named Fritz Fischer, see. By trying to make the British think the French started World War One instead of Austria they would join sides with the Germans and share the power that they had. The fruitful collaboration between military and cultural historians has been followed by valuable cultural history approaches to international relations. 22 Another theory was. And yet, for various reasons, the fields of international and cultural history remained distant. The documents were translated into German but not into English or French under the guidance of Otto Hoetzsch (1876-1946), a leading German expert on Russian politics. In his 1969 book War of Illusions (Krieg der Illusionen Fischer offered a detailed study of German politics from 1911 to 1914 in which he offered a Primat der Innenpolitik (Primacy of Domestic Politics) analysis of German foreign policy. An expansionist imperialist policy offered the elites in the German Empire a means to escape these contradictions and to stifle domestic reform but at the risk of war.
1 Fischer suggested that there was continuity in German foreign policy from 1900 to the Second World War, implying that Germany was responsible for both world wars. The Hundred-Year Debate on the Origins of World War." Central European History 48#4 (2015 541-564,". The older interpretations of people like Pierre Renouvin, Bernadotte Schmitt, and Luigi Albertini -which, while quite critical of Germany, never went so far as to claim that the German government deliberately set out to provoke a general war-are still very widely accepted. Bogdanor believes the Germans were mistaken. Paléologue, published in 1921 in the Revue des Deux Mondes, the Grand Duchesses Anastasia and Militza told him, on July 22, 1914, at Tsarskoe Selo, that their father, the King of Montenegro, had informed them in a cipher telegram, "we shall have war before the. At the same time, many one-sided works were produced by politicians and other participants, often trying to exculpate themselves. Although historians on both sides of the debate claimed that documents provided access to historical truth, the complex context of each document made singular interpretations difficult. My final reason why I agree with Fischers thesis is that he states that the Germans were trying to make the British think they had been provoked by the French. But he did not shy away from criticisms of other leaders Sergei Sazonovs (1860-1927) misunderstanding of mobilisation plans or Greys failure to warn Germany more clearly about Britains likely entry into a European conflict, for example. 1 Fischer argued that the German government used the crisis caused by the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in the summer of 1914 to act on plans for a war against France and Russia, to create Mitteleuropa, a German-dominated Europe, and Mittelafrika, a German-dominated Africa. 9 The most comprehensive analysis of the origins of the war, written by the former editor of Corriere della Sera, Luigi Albertini (1871-1941), was published during the Second World War. In 1918, the Swedish paper Politiken published documents written by the former German ambassador to London, Prince Max von Lichnowsky (1860-1928) and designed for a small circle amongst the German elite.
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